At first glance, bear grass (Xerophyllum tenax) looks like a true grass species but this plant is a member of the Lily family. Morgan, C., and Nigam, Y. Camel Hair. They are dead at maturity and function as support tissue in plant stems and roots. 2003). “Development of a green binder system for paper products,” BMC, Retrieved from “Looking for links between natural fibres’ structures and their physical properties,” Conference Papers in Materials Science, 1-10. doi:10.1155/2013/141204. “The future prospects of microbial cellulose in biomedical applications,” Biomacromolecules 8(1), 1-12. doi:10.1021/bm060620d, Daunton, C., and Kothari, S. (2012). Western royalty often had clothes made from a blend of hemp and linen, and Gutenberg used hemp to print his Bible. They come from the outer portion of the stem of fibrous plants such as flax, hemp, and jute, or from the leaves of plants such as cattail, agave, and yucca. short fibers, continuous fibers, and particulates (powders) can be used for fabrication of biocomposites. Moreover, it should be noted that success of biomaterials in the body depends on surgical techniques, health conditions, and way of life of patients (Ramakrishna et al. Materials can irritate a different host response in the bulk form than in the fibrous or particulate form. “Biological materials: Structure and mechanical properties,” Progress in Materials Science 53(1), 1-206. doi:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2007.05.002, Milanese, A. C., Cioffi, M. O. H., and Voorwald, H. J. C. (2011). Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibres for Composite Applications. Retrieved from There are many types of bio binders, of which the most common are shown in Fig. The matrix (the bioresin/synthetic resin) supports the fibrous material (natural fibres) and transfers the stress to the fiber to carry the load in natural fibre-reinforced polymer composites. Retrieved from http://search.informit. Fibers from the thick bark of the western red cedar, Thuja plicata, have been most widely utilized. Thus, implants made from these materials tend to be much stiffer than the tissue to which they are attached. Animal fibres include wool, hair and secretions, such as silk. Sci. Biocomposites can be employed in bioengineering or biomedical applications (Cheung et al. 2001). 3). 2007). ), seed fibers (coir, cotton, and kapok), fruit fibres (oil palm, coir), stalk (wheat, rice, rye, etc. Polymer composites are those materials that can be developed by combination of either natural fibers/synthetic resin or natural fibers/bio-resin (Chandramohan and Marimuthu 2011). 3. Cellulose produces long, … Some other plant fibres Hemp was used to make clothes as long ago as 600 BC in China. “Mechanical behavior of natural fiber composites,” Procedia Engineering 10, 2022-2027. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.335. Researchers and entrepreneurs are interested in the utilization of environmentally friendly and sustainable biocomposite materials for biomedical and industrial applications. “Biomedical applications of polymer-composite materials: A review,” Composites Science and Technology 61, 1189-1224. Stinging nettle plants were dried and used to make twine, ropes, and herring nets, The roots of White Spruce were used to sew canoes and snowshoes. Key Factors for the Selection of Materials for Biomedical Applications. Hemp is a bast fiber plant similar to Flax, Kenaf, Jute, and Ramie. 2. Sain, M., and Bhatnagar, A. (2010). The “sweetgrass” (Muhlenbergia filipes) grows along the southeastern coastal plain. “Natural fibres as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) composites,” Composites Science and Technology 63, 1317–1324. Development of biocomposites by using natural fibres as an alternative to petroleum based materials would help to reduce dependence on imported oil, carbon dioxide emission, and help to generate more economical opportunities for the agricultural sector. Biocomposites can be fabricated by combining biofibres such as oil palm, kenaf, industrial hemp, flax, jute, henequen, pineapple leaf fibre, sisal, wood, and various grasses with polymer matrices from either non-renewable (petroleum based) or renewable resources (Jawaid and Khalil 2011). “Improving the impact strength of natural fiber reinforced composites by specifically designed material and process parameters,” Int. Depending on the type of natural fibres, type of matrix, the proportion of fiber-matrix, and the type of manufacturing process, the properties of fiber composites can be tailored to achieve the desired end product (Ticoalu 2010). Table 3. “Effect of fiber surface treatments on thermo-mechanical behavior of poly(lactic acid)/phormium tenax composites,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment 21(3), 881-891. doi:10.1007/s10924-013-0594-y, Strandqvist, M. (2012). 2013). Natural fibres available in different forms (continuous, chopped, woven, and fabrics) determine ultimate physical and mechanical properties of final components. In the 1980s, producers were able to make fine cloth suitable for clothing from hemp. Giri, J., Adhikari, R., and Campus, T. (2013). Sweet grass was often burned to purify dancers in tribal ceremonies. “Medical balloon with incorporated fibres,” WIPO patent WO/2013/148399. However, for successful application, surgeons must be convinced of the long term durability and reliability of composite biomaterials. 2009). “Coir fibre reinforcement and application in polymer composites: A review,” J. Biomaterials can also be defined as “materials used in implants or medical devices and intent or compatible to interact with biological systems” (Ratner and Hoffman 2004). Fibers can be spun into filaments, thread, or rope; be chemically modified to create a composite material (e.g., rayon or cellophane); or matted into sheets as with paper. 30, 254-261. 2011; Puglia et al. 3. People have been using plant fibres for thousands of years in order to make clothing, rope, paper etc. Asokan, P., Firdoous, M., and Sonal, W. (2012b). (2004). (2010). Plant fibres. Indian and Chinese craftspeople have been utilizing glues, waxes, and tissues to repair or regenerate abnormal parts of the body as a traditional treatment of wounded or traumatized patients (Patel and Gohil 2012). Also Eichhorn et al. In this regard, there is ongoing research to address these issues. Banana yucca (Yucca baccata) is preferred over other yuccas because of the strength of its fibers. Retrieved from (2011). Selection of Biomaterials for Biomedical Applications. The Low Country of South Carolina is renowned for its coiled sweetgrass baskets. Cottenceau, J. P., Nadul, G., Chevillon, G., and Roussigne, M. (1998). “Influence of natural fiber type in eco-composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 107, 2994-3004. Yu, G. (2003). “Bioabsorbable implants: Review of clinical experience in orthopedic surgery,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering 32(1), 171-177, Retrieved from “A review on biomaterials: Scope, applications & human anatomy significance,” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering 2(4), 91-101. Therefore, the use of natural fibers may bring environmental benefits as well as cost benefits. CottonCotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber thatCotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll around the seeds of thegrows in a boll around the seeds of the cotton plant. US Forest Service, FM-RM-VE The pods from Devil’s claw (Proboscidea parviflora ssp. collagen, elastin, and hydroxyapatite) of the tissues (Ramakrishna et al. American basswood (Tilia americana). (2013). Zhou, S., and Wu, Z. Natural fibres by themselves cannot be used to sustain the range of loads expected in many biomedical applications (Everitt et al. Everitt, N. M., Aboulkhair, N. T., and Clifford, M. J. Leaves were dried and made into braids and used as vanilla scented incense. It is possible to produce highly durable consumer products from natural fibres that can be easily recyclable (Corbie 2001). Washington DC 20250-1103, Pollinator-Friendly Best Management Practices, Native Plant Material Accomplishment Reports, Fading Gold: The Decline of Aspen in the West, Wildflowers, Part of the Pagentry of Fall Colors, Tall Forb Community of the Intermountain West, Strategic Planning, Budget And Accountability, Recreation, Heritage And Volunteer Resources, Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air And Rare Plants, Building materials: roofing, caulking materials. Photo by Charlie McDonald. “Characterization of natural fibers and their application in bone grafting substitutes,” Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics / Wrocław University of Technology 13(1), 77-84. “Could biopolymers reinforced by randomly scattered flax fibre be used in structural applications?” Composites Science and Technology 67(3-4), 462-470. The plant materials, like jute, contribute to the manufacturing of bags, ropes, and other materials. DiGregorio, B. E. (2009). 2009) or alternatively as composites that contain at least one natural fibre/plant fibre component. 2006). Fiber crops are characterized by having a large concentration of cellulose, which is what gives them their strength. 2007; Daunton and Kothari 2012). ), leaf fibers (banana, sisal, manila hemp, agave, abaca, pineapple, etc. van Dam, T.A. For some applications as in dental implants, biopolymers offer a better aesthetic characteristic. “Far-infrared fibre fabric functional bellyband by utilizing nano selenium, germanium and zinc elements traditional Chinese medicine,” China Patent CN101703317. (2008). (2005a). “Biodegradable poly(lactic acid)/chitosan-modified montmorillonite nanocomposites: Preparation and characterization,” Polymer Degradation and Stability 91(9), 2198-2204. doi:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2006.01.004. Metals or ceramics seem to be more suitable for hard tissue applications from the mechanical point of view as compared to polymers for soft tissue applications. Fig. Plant-based fibers such as flax, jute, sisal, hemp, and kenaf have been frequently used in the manufacturing of biocomposites. 2001). It was probably used first in Asia. Czaja, W. K., Young, D. J., Kawecki, M., and Brown, R. M. (2007). Paper birch (Betula papyrifera). Taniguchi, K., Kohno, I., Tanabe, K., Jo, Y., and Ohnishi, I. Researchers obtained cellulose nanofibers from flax bast fibers, hemp fibers, kraft pulp, and rutabaga and developed nanocomposites from cellulose nanofibres which can find application in the medical field such as blood bags, cardiac devices, and valves as reinforcing biomaterials (Bhatnagar 2005). “Cellulose-based bio- and nanocomposites: A review,” International Journal of Polymer Science. Biocomposites fabrication can be done by different methods, sometimes placing natural fibre in the desired direction to obtain polymer composites having specific mechanical properties. Wolffs law of stress related bone remodeling states that it will lead to lower bone density and altered bone architecture (Goldstein et al. It is waterproof, tough, resinous and durable. Chandramohan, D., and Marimuthu, K. (2011). Wood fibres – can be used to make paper from trees Sisal fibres – are obtained from Agave Sisalana and these fibres are used in the construction of cars, furniture, plastics and even paper. Oksman, K., Skrifvars, M., Selin, J-F. (2003). Experimental procedures,” 15(3), 415-420. 1400 Independence Ave., SW 1). (2008). In another study, researchers reported that several additional issues such as biological response, biocompatibility, and flexibility must be considered for designing biomedical composites and predicting their performance (Kutz et al. “Physical modification of natural fibers and thermoplastic films for composites — A review,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials 22(2), 135-162. doi:10.1177/0892705708091860, Navarro, M., Michiardi, A., Castaño, O., and Planell, J. Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are traditionally used to make paper, cloth, or rope. The anisotropy of the elastic properties of the biological tissues has to be considered in the design criterion for implants made from composite biomaterials. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences 365(1861), 2907-2919. doi:10.1098/rsta.2007.0006, Bhatnagar, A. Natural fiber composites can be used for biomedical applications for bone and tissues repair and reconstruction (Dhandayuthapani et al. Plant fibres 1. Abaca: It's a leaf fibre, composed of long slim cells that form part of the leaf's supporting structure. A sacred grass, it was and still is often used in healing ceremonies and peace rituals. “Mechanical performance of biocomposites based on PLA and PHBV reinforced with natural fibres – A comparative study to PP,” Composites Science and Technology 70(12), 1-37. This leads to insufficient bonding adhesion at the interface, as well as poor fibre dispersion, in turn resulting in non-uniform material properties in the composites (Kabir and Wang 2011). That resources can be replaced. Plant fibers are found as structural elements in all higher plants. Presently fibre-reinforced polymer composites are extensively used multiphase materials in orthopedics, and most of the today’s upper and lower limb prostheses are made from composites with an underlying polymer matrix (Chandramohan and Marimuthu 2011). Based on their sustainability, plant fibers such as hemp, jute, sisal, kenaf, banana, and ramie fibers are replacing synthetic fibers in increasing numbers of fiber-reinforced composites. J.E.G. Table 1. Biocompatibility is generally defined as the ability of a biomaterial to perform with an appropriate host response in a specific application. Puglia, D., Biagiotti, J., and Kenny, J. “A history of materials and practices for wound management,” Wound Management 20(4). 2004). 2011). It is also an important food plant. Adv. This review paper addresses the utilization of plant fibres and its composites in biomedical applications and considers potential future research directed at environment-friendly biodegradable composites for biomedical applications. Lund, S. S., Ole, O., Bruun, L. J., Logstrup, A. T., Povl, B., Klaus, B., and Kristoffer, A. Furniture & Shelter. Yuccas are members of the Agave family, which have enjoyed a wide range of ethnobotanical uses. The plant wood is used to build houses, to make furniture items, carts, boats, automobiles, ships, etc. 2008). Various applications of different polymer composite biomaterials, (Source: Ramakrishna et al. 2009; Ramakrishna et al. (2013). Photo courtesy of U.S. Forest Service. Table 6. This mismatch of stiffness between the bone and the soft tissues the fibrous or particulate form researchers Sarasini..., pine needles, or palmetto fronds stems have been used in the area of,! 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