Coffea arabica is a polyploid species, carrying four copies of the eleven chromosomes typical of the genus Coffea, totaling 44 (2n = 4x = 44). The seeds are contained in a drupe (commonly called a "cherry") 10–15 mm in diameter, maturing bright red to purple and typically contains two seeds, often called coffee beans. Seattle, WA: Burke Museum at the University of Washington. Endemic to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia. The plant was cultivated in Yemen around 1000 AD, and later it spread around the world. The berries are oblong and about 1 cm long. The Arab innovation in Yemen of making a brew from roasted beans spread first among the Egyptians and Turks, and later on, found its way around the world. Two to four years after planting, C. arabica produces small, white, highly fragrant flowers. Coffea arabica is native to central Ethiopia. Does Caffeine Affect the Taste of Coffee and Cola? SL28 is among the most well-known and well-regarded varieties of Africa. Water thoroughly once the top half-inch of soil feels dry. Distribution Despite its name, C. arabica originated in Ethiopia, where it grows at elevations between 1,375 to 1,830 m. It is believed to have been introduced into Arabia prior to the 15th century. Two to four years after planting, the arabica plant produces small, white, highly fragrant flowers. After pruning, berries begin to appear. The flowers are white, 10–15 mm in diameter and grow in axillary clusters. The plant species Coffea Arabica got its name around the 7th century when the bean crossed the Red Sea from Ethiopia to present-day Yemen and lower Arabia, hence the term "arabica.". Arabica Coffea The origin of this species is attributed to Ethiopia and Yemen, where the plant grew wild and where the first evidence was found of consumption of the related beverage: coffee. Join Us! The trees are difficult to cultivate and each tree can produce from 0.5 to 5.0 kg of dried beans, depending on the tree's individual character and the climate that season. Will do best close to an east or west-facing window. 1. family: Rubiaceae 2. scientific name: coffea 3. species: arabica coffee 4. origin: Ethiopia 5. vegetation: ever-green, overlapping 6. height: 80-150 cm 7. leaves: young leaves light green and shining, later darker green 8. heyday: summer 9. blossoms: white, radial 10. fruit: red coffee cherries with two seeds eachCoffee arabica, which is usually from south-western Ethiopia, is the economically most important of around 60 species. Since 1718, the coffee was known in America, starting in a Dutch colony called Surinam and followed by some crops in French Guyana. C. arabica is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 44) originating from a hybridization event of the two diploid species C. canephora and C. eugenioides (2n = 2x = … Indonesian coffees, such as Sumatran and Java, are known for heavy body and low acidity. History and Origins of Your Favorite Beverage, Love Your Latte? Ethiopia is considered the place of origin of Arabica coffee, in the province of Kaffa. Conversely, this also means the entire genetic diversity of Arabica has been skewed by the actions of a few fearless Dutchmen. The first written record of coffee made from roasted coffee beans comes from Arab scholars, who wrote that it was useful in prolonging their working hours. It grows best in higher altitudes but can be grown as low as sea level. [16] In the Udawattakele and Gannoruwa Forest Reserves near Kandy, Sri Lanka, coffee shrubs are also a problematic invasive species. Names. Meyer, Frederick G. 1965. "The plant: Origin, production and botany". In Kefa, the Oromo tribe ate the bean, crushed it and mixed it with fat to make spheres the size of ping-pong balls. Pierre Tristam is an award-winning writer who covers Middle East, foreign affairs, immigration, and civil liberties. Each berry holds two locules containing the beans. Coffea arabica, commonly called Arabian coffee, is an upright tropical evergreen shrub or small tree that grows to 10-15’ tall. [14], The coffee tree was first brought to Hawaii in 1813, and it began to be extensively grown by about 1850. The word “coffee” may be a corruption of Kaffa, the province of Ethiopia where C. arabicaoriginated and may have been domesticated. Although native to Ethiopia, Arabian coffee has been cultivated in Arabia for over 1000 years. Coffee is an understory shrub or small tree native to tropical Africa. Arabica is the most flavoursome coffee variety and is used for no less than three-quarters of total global coffee production. They contain More Arabica Arabica refers to Coffea Arabica, the taxonomic species name of the genus responsible for around 75% of the worlds commercial coffee crop. Arabica coffee grows best at high altitudes, has a much more refined flavor than other species, and contains about 1% caffeine by weight. The berries are dark green like the leaves until they begin to ripen, at first to yellow and then light red and finally darkening to a glossy, deep red. Welcome to the India Biodiversity Portal - A repository of information designed to harness and disseminate collective intelligence on the biodiversity of the Indian subcontinent. Coffee seeds were transported … The Three Sisters: the Traditional Intercropping Agricultural Method. Arabica is considered the merlot of coffee, it has a mild taste, and to coffee drinkers, it can be described to have a sweetness, that is light and airy, like the mountains it comes from. Coffee (Coffea arabica) is regarded as an environmental weed in south-eastern Queensland and northern Queensland. [6] Coffea arabica is now rare in Ethiopia, while many populations appear to be of mixed native and planted trees. The berries then begin to appear. Specifically, Coffea arabica is itself the result of a hybridization between the diploids Coffea canephora and Coffea eugenioides,[5] thus making it an allotetraploid, with two copies of two different genomes. [12] Commercial cultivars mostly only grow to about 5 m, and are frequently trimmed as low as 2 m to facilitate harvesting. Scientific Coffea arabica English Arabica coffee Coffee shrub of Arabia Mountain coffee Dutch The prize of the berries is the beans inside, usually two per berry. Fermented coffee (green) seeds without their hulls. Coffee is one of the three most-popular beverages in the world (alongside water and tea) and one of the most-profitable international commodities. It is commonly used as an understorey shrub. A little early morning or late afternoon direct light is ok. Watering: High water requirements. Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae) Arabica coffee, mountain coffee (Coffee family) Origin: Ethiopia, now cultivated worldwide Coffee, one of the leading cash crops and one of the most popular drug plants of the last few hundred years (along with tea and tobacco,) may be this author’s favorite thing in the world. [23], One strain of Coffea arabica naturally contains very little caffeine. Learn the History of Coffee, Hemagglutinin and Food Poisoning From Beans, B.A., Politics and History, New York University. Inferior coffee results from picking them too early or too late, so many are picked by hand to be able to better select them, as they do not all ripen at the same time. Total global coffee production who covers Middle East, foreign affairs, immigration and... 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