" The clicking sound made by reindeer as they walk is caused by small tendons slipping over bone protuberances (sesamoid bones) in their feet. Arctic peoples have depended on caribou for food, clothing, and shelter, such as the Caribou Inuit, the inland-dwelling Inuit of the Kivalliq Region in northern Canada, the Caribou Clan in Yukon, the Inupiat, the Inuvialuit, the Hän, the Northern Tutchone, and the Gwich'in (who followed the Porcupine caribou for millennia). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. At the age of 2 months, the young one is already changing the spotted infant dress (the spots are, however, not always) on the adult. How long do reindeer live ? This process is called antlerogenesis. Reindeer are not considered fully domesticated, as they generally roam free on pasture grounds. Reindeer are herd animals and live in groups. , To calve, "females travel to isolated, relatively predator-free areas such as islands in lakes, peatlands, lake-shores, or tundra. 49–108). Northern populations, which usually are relatively small, are whiter, while southern populations, which typically are relatively large, are darker. Visit Santa any time you want!  Velvet lumps in March can develop into a rack measuring more than a metre in length (3 ft) by August. Although lichens are high in carbohydrates, they are lacking in essential proteins that vascular plants provide. They have a very typical herd-animal lifestyle with adult males battling each other for territory and the right to mate with females. This process of absorption was still apparent in recent times in the spread of Evenk and Even pastoralism into Yukaghir…, The caribou is a migrant, but only between the Arctic tundra and the conifer (subarctic) zone to the south, and there are far northern groups of caribou whose migrations are more restricted. , The use of reindeer as semi-domesticated livestock in Alaska was introduced in the late 19th century by the U.S. Revenue Cutter Service, with assistance from Sheldon Jackson, as a means of providing a livelihood for Native peoples there. Reindeer were introduced to, and feral in, Iceland, Kerguelen Islands, South Georgia Island, Pribilof Islands, St. Matthew Island.". Biologists call this activity "cratering" because of the crater-like cavity the caribou’s hooves leave in the snow. The Low Arctic population of Peary caribou was designated as threatened.  After 45 days, the calves are able to graze and forage, but continue suckling until the following autumn when they become independent from their mothers.. This increase in infection is a concern for wildlife managers. For us, this can be challenging to deal with. To the Inuit, for whom the caribou is a "culturally important keystone species", the months are named after landmarks in the caribou life cycle.  Dugmore noted that, in their seasonal migrations, the herd follows a doe for that reason. Nearly 3 million domestic reindeer live in northern Europe. Environmental Physiology of Animals. The caribou feeds the wolf, but it is the wolf who keeps the caribou strong. They used for winter clothing "because each hair is hollow and fills with air trapping heat. 30: De Tarando (1621).  Historically, the range of the sedentary boreal woodland caribou covered more than half of Canada and into the northern states in the U.S. Woodland caribou have disappeared from most of their original southern range and were designated as threatened in 2002 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). , Reindeer mate in late September to early November and the gestation period is about 228–234 days. There is an ox shaped like a stag. Caribou use these large, sharp-edged hooves to dig through the snow and uncover the lichens that sustain them in winter months. The Porcupine caribou and the barren-ground caribou form large herds and undertake lengthy seasonal migrations from birthing grounds to summer and winter feeding grounds in the tundra and taiga. , In one case, the entire body of a reindeer was found in the stomach of a Greenland shark, a species found in the far northern Atlantic, although this was possibly a case of scavenging, considering the dissimilarity of habitats between the ungulate and the large, slow-moving fish. Chevron down. , The environmental variations play a large part in reindeer nutrition, as winter nutrition is crucial to adult and neonatal survival rates. Antlers with up to 44 points can grow to 1.4 metres long in males; this is the only deer species in which females also have antlers. Shoulder height is usually 85 to 150 cm (33 to 59 in), and the tail is 14 to 20 cm (5.5 to 7.9 in) long.  When a female has undergone nutritional stress, it is possible for her to not reproduce for the year. The calf grows rapidly on its mother’s milk, which is richer than that of any other ungulate. They also live in Europe, Russia, and Greenland. Tundra males, aggregated with thousands of females for the fall migration, assess other males’ antler size visually and thus generally avoid serious fights. In winter it is nearly always dark, and in summer it is nearly always light. The descriptions have been interpreted as being of reindeer living in the southern Ural Mountains in c. 350 BC, A deer-like animal described by Julius Caesar in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico (chapter 6.26) from the Hercynian Forest in the year 53 BC is most certainly to be interpreted as reindeer:. During the last glaciation (see ice age) more than 11,700 years ago, they were hunted by the Clovis people of New Mexico and by many early Stone Age tribes in southern Europe. Only 8 Sleeps Left! There are domestic reindeer in Alaska and Canada, but they actually are descendants of domestic Eurasian reindeer that were brought to …  The tapetum lucidum of Arctic reindeer eyes changes in colour from gold in summer to blue in winter to improve their vision during times of continuous darkness, and perhaps enable them to better spot predators. Names for reindeer in languages spoken throughout their (former) native range: The species' taxonomic name, Rangifer tarandus, was defined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. , A variety of predators prey heavily on reindeer, including overhunting by people in some areas, which contributes to the decline of populations.. Add a safe link to your home screen. K’ughto’oodenool’o’ recounted a story told by an elder, who "worked on the steamboats during the gold rush days out on the Yukon." The domestic reindeer is ubiquitous throughout Arctic and subarctic Eurasia (except the Pacific coast), whereas the North American caribou—which is virtually identical to the Eurasian wild reindeer—has never been domesticated. In late August the caribou migrated from the Alaska Range up north to Huslia, Koyukuk and the Tanana area.  Innovative language revitalisation projects are underway to document the language and to enhance the writing and translation skills of younger Gwich'in speakers. The tradition of giving gifts and treats for Santa, along with wondering what do reindeer eat, has spread around the world. , The table above includes R. tarandus caboti (Labrador caribou), R. tarandus osborni (Osborn's caribou – from British Columbia) and R. tarandus terraenovae (Newfoundland caribou). , The "glacial-interglacial cycles of the upper Pleistocene had a major influence on the evolution" of Rangifer tarandus and other Arctic and sub-Arctic species. The antlerogenic genes in reindeer have more sensitivity to androgens in comparison with other cervids. They have a very typical herd-animal lifestyle with adult males battling each other for territory and the right to mate with females. [Notes 4] Fur is the primary insulation factor that allows reindeer to regulate their core body temperature in relation to their environment, the thermogradient, even if the temperature rises to 100 °F (38 °C).  During the late Pleistocene era, reindeer occurred as far south as Nevada and Tennessee in North America and as far south as Spain in Europe. , During the Arctic summer, when there is continuous daylight, reindeer change their sleeping pattern from one synchronised with the sun to an ultradian pattern in which they sleep when they need to digest food. "(Marie Kilunik, Aivilingmiut, Crnkovich 1990:116). In the Arctic wild, reindeer live in a liminal space — the tundra plain between the timberline and the polar ice cap. " COSEWIC developed Designated Unit (DU) attribution to add to classifications already in use. There are about 3.5 million caribou in North America and perhaps 1 million wild reindeer in Eurasia, mostly in Russia. Associated with the caribou's anatomy are not just descriptive Gwich'in names for all of the body parts including bones, organs, and tissues, but also "an encyclopedia of stories, songs, games, toys, ceremonies, traditional tools, skin clothing, personal names and surnames, and a highly developed ethnic cuisine. Summer food is grass, sedges, green leaves of shrubs and new growth of larch, willow, and birch; mushrooms are sought in late summer. ", Current classifications of Rangifer tarandus, either with prevailing taxonomy on subspecies, designations based on ecotypes, or natural population groupings, fail to capture "the variability of caribou across their range in Canada" needed for effective species conservation and management. This also enables them to dig down (an activity known as "cratering") through the snow to their favourite food, a lichen known as reindeer lichen (Cladonia rangiferina). The herdsmen use boats to direct herds to offshore islands in summer.  In May or June the calves are born. Liber 22, Cap. " While antlers of bull woodland caribou are typically smaller than barren-ground caribou, they can be over one metre (3') across. Reindeer live in herds of as few as 10 to as many as 1,000. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. In Middle English, der meant a wild animal of any kind, in contrast to cattle. , White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) commonly carry meningeal worm or brainworm, a nematode parasite that causes reindeer, moose (Alces alces), elk (Cervus canadensis), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) to develop fatal neurological symptoms which include a loss of fear of humans. On the territory of Russia, reindeers live in the northern mountains of the Urals, the Siberian taiga and the Far East. The largest of all herds (in Taimyr, Russia) has varied between 400,000 and 1,000,000; the second largest herd (at the George River in Canada) has varied between 28,000 and 385,000. The Sami—the estimated 80,000 people who are indigenous to the region and live in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia—prepare for winter by bringing their reindeer … Around the world, public interest in reindeer peaks in the Christmas period.  Wolverines will take newborn calves or birthing cows, as well as (less commonly) infirm adults. In 1991 COSEWIC assigned "endangered status" to the Banks Island and High Arctic populations of Peary caribou. In Finland, they like to say that there are as many reindeer in Lapland as there are …  Even in historical times, it probably occurred naturally in Ireland and are believed to have lived in Scotland until the 12th century when the last Reindeer were hunted in Orkney. Antlers begin to grow on male reindeer in March or April and on female reindeer in May or June. His 2001 children's book entitled Caribou Song/atíhko níkamon was selected as one of the "Top 10 Children’s Books" by the Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail. The word deer was originally broader in meaning but became more specific over time. This velvet is dark brown on woodland or barren-ground caribou and slate-grey on Peary caribou and the Dolphin-Union caribou herd. "Est bos cervi figura, cuius a media fronte inter aures unum cornu* exsistit excelsius magisque directum his, quae nobis nota sunt, cornibus: ab eius summo sicut palmae ramique* late diffunduntur.  Environment Canada reported in 2011 that there were approximately 34,000 boreal woodland caribou in 51 ranges remaining in Canada. How can reindeer live in the cold? Reindeer are ruminants, having a four-chambered stomach. :142 To them caribou—vadzaih—is the cultural symbol and a keystone subsistence species of the Gwich'in, just as the buffalo is to the Plains Indians. You can also help "Elf Control" track & talk to Santa Claus on his famous flight & send him emails! Air Date: 12/17/20 ... Meet Farmers Dave & Dan’s Reindeer Pals Air Date: 11/29/18 Supporter Video . Reindeer live in some of the coldest places on earth. 5. In 1925 it was discovered that there are no reindeer in the North Pole. , There is an Inuit saying in the Kivalliq Region:.  Other North American populations, the boreal woodland caribou for example, are largely sedentary. Oh deer—here come the holiday puns! He affirms that the "true woodland caribou is very rare, in very great difficulties and requires the most urgent of attention. , There is considerable variation between subspecies in the size of the antlers (e.g.  In Alaska, reindeer herders use satellite telemetry to track their herds, using online maps and databases to chart the herd's progress. Reindeer have specialised counter-current vascular heat exchange in their nasal passages. This word may go back to the Saami word raingo. The last remaining wild tundra reindeer in Europe are found in portions of southern Norway. Because of the continuing decline and expected changes in long-term weather patterns, this subspecies is at imminent risk of extinction. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Back for 2020! Only 8 Sleeps Left! Wood reindeer live in groups of no more than 20-30 throughout the year. Reindeer spend their life in the cold, inhabiting the arctic and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere including North America, Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Norway, Finland, Russia and Mongolia. July 14, 2017 July 14, 2017 admintag The maximum lifespan of domestic reindeer is 25 to 28 years, wildlife is probably less. Once upon a time there were no caribou on the earth. , The canonical Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.) They are important to traditional herders such as the Sami (Lapps) of Scandinavia and Russia, who exploit them as pack and draft animals and for meat, milk, and hides; the antlers are carved into tools and totems. In describing woodland caribou, SARA wrote, "During the rut, males engage in frequent and furious sparring battles with their antlers. In North America, it was found in Canada, Alaska, and the northern conterminous USA from Washington to Maine. Rangifer tarandus is "endangered in Canada in regions such as south-east British Columbia at the Canadian-USA border, along the Columbia, Kootenay and Kootenai rivers and around Kootenay Lake. (Environment Canada, 2011b). Tundra reindeer live in large herds, though they fragment and become smaller in the winter months. In addition to meat, almost all of the internal organs of reindeer can be eaten, some being traditional dishes.  Geist describes them as frontally emphasised, flat-beamed antlers. Their home ranges tend be as big as 190 square miles (500 square km), according to Encyclopedia Britannica. ", "Evaluation of Programs and Activities in Support of the Species at Risk Act", 10.1890/0012-9658(2001)082[3556:aofcbo]2.0.co;2, "Caribou Census Complete: 325,000 animals", "Defining subspecies, invalid taxonomic tools, and the fate of the woodland caribou", "Rangifer tarandus caribou (Gmelin, 1788): Taxonomic Serial No. They are in Canada, Russia, Greenland, Alaska and northern Asia. The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal, and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia, and North America. Live. Reindeer are known as caribou in North America, although they are scientifically known as Rangifer tarandus. They were first used by people to do work in Lappland and Siberia. ", A darker belly colour may be caused by two mutations of MC1R. Large populations of wild reindeer are still found in Siberia, Greenland, Alaska and Canada. According to the Species at Risk Public Registry (SARA), woodland, "Caribou have large feet with four toes. His grandmother made a pair of new mukluks in one day. After one month it can eat fresh plant growth, and by three months it can survive if the mother dies, but normally weaning takes place at five to six months. Most herders were Nenets, who were mobilised from the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, but reindeer herders from Murmansk, Arkhangelsk and Komi also participated..  The population numbers of some of these predators is influenced by the migration of reindeer. Back for 2020! The latter is probably a misunderstanding of the seasonal change in reindeer fur colour. Today, wild reindeer are no longer found throughout much of this range, especially the southernmost regions, due to a variety of factors. They are flattened, compact and relatively dense. they are rather small and spindly in the northernmost subspecies), but on average the bull reindeer's antlers are the second largest of any extant deer, after the moose. : 202411", "Variation in Mitochondrial Dna and Microsatellite Dna in Caribou (, 10.1644/1545-1542(2005)86[495:VIMDAM]2.0.CO;2, "The Holocene occurrence of reindeer on Franz Josef Land, Russia | Request PDF", "Evolving perspectives on caribou population dynamics, have we got it right yet?  The New York Times reported in April 2018 of the disappearance of the only herd of southern mountain caribou in the contiguous United States with an expert calling it "functionally extinct" after the herd's size dwindled to a mere three animals.. Santa’s Elves live for a … Banfield rejected this classification in 1961. Some subspecies are rare and at least one has already become extinct: the Queen Charlotte Islands caribou of Canada. Elves love animals. During World War II, the Soviet Army used reindeer as pack animals to transport food, ammunition and post from Murmansk to the Karelian front and bring wounded soldiers, pilots and equipment back to the base.  The sound is made when a reindeer is walking or running, occurring when the full weight of the foot is on the ground or just after it is relieved of the weight. The young protagonists of Caribou Song, like Tomson himself, followed the caribou herd with their families. In the Scandinavian and Arctic Circle populations, old males' antlers fall off in late December, young males' fall off in the early spring and females' fall off in the summer.  There is also some evidence to suggest that on occasion, especially in the spring when they are nutritionally stressed, they will feed on small rodents (such as lemmings), fish (such as Arctic char), and bird eggs. If it is very cold, they can drop the temperature of their legs to 33 degrees and just heat their bodies. Reindeer herders on the Seward Peninsula have experienced significant losses to their herds from animals (such as wolves) following the wild caribou during their migrations. Some reindeer in the area are truly domesticated, mostly used as draught animals (nowadays commonly for tourist entertainment and races, traditionally important for the nomadic Sámi). In the traditional lifestyle of the Inuit people, the Northern First Nations people, the Alaska Natives, and the Kalaallit of Greenland, reindeer is an important source of food, clothing, shelter and tools. Human activities, such as "clear-cutting forestry practices, forest fires, and the clearing for agriculture, roadways, railways, and power lines," favour the conversion of habitats into the preferred habitat of the white-tailed deer-"open forest interspersed with meadows, clearings, grasslands, and riparian flatlands. White-tailed deer that carry this worm are partly immune to it. The woodland caribou subspecies' taxonomic name Rangifer tarandus caribou was defined by Gmelin in 1788. Both sexes grow a new set each year, with males shedding their horns in early December and females shedding in … Not Now. They like to move around a lot and rarely stay in one place for very long. ", Banfield AWF (1966) "The caribou", pp. ", Both Aristotle and Theophrastus have short accounts – probably based on the same source – of an ox-sized deer species, named tarandos, living in the land of the Bodines in Scythia, which was able to change the colour of its fur to obtain camouflage. ", "Caribou Foes: Natural Predators in the Wilderness", "Six Ways Climate Change Is Waging War on Christmas", Lapland Reindeer meat protected in the EU, "Quebec's Carnaval is worth freezing your a** off for", "Linguistic Team Studies Caribou Anatomy", "Genetic analyses reveal independent domestication origins of Eurasian reindeer", Europe's last wild reindeer herds in peril, "Reindeer Herding: a virtual guide to reindeer and those who herd them", "Technical viability of mobile solar photovoltaic systems for indigenous nomadic communities in northern latitudes", War memorial to honor WWII reindeer battalions, "Flying Reindeer and Santa Claus: Fact, Fiction and Myth", The Reindeer Portal, Source of Information About Reindeer Husbandry Worldwide, 1935 Reindeer Herding in the Northwest Territories, General information on Caribou and Reindeer, Reindeer hunting as World Heritage – a ten-thousand-year-long tradition, Reindeer Research Program – Alaska reindeer research and industry development, "The Other 364 Days of the Year: The Real Lives of Wild Reindeer Categories: Biology and Ecosystems", Newfoundland Five-Year Caribou Strategy Seeks to Address Declining Populations, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reindeer&oldid=995741166, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles with disputed statements from February 2017, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Encyclopedia Americana with a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Reindeer range: North American (green) and Eurasian (red). Reindeer have deeply cloven hoofs so the feet can spread on snow or soft ground; they are also good swimmers. Corrections? The amount of lichen in a diet decreases in latitude, which results in nutritional stress being higher in areas with low lichen abundance. , Reindeer hunting by humans has a very long history and wild reindeer "may well be the species of single greatest importance in the entire anthropological literature on hunting. The antler is the blood that has hardened, in fact, the core of the antler is still bloody when the velvet starts to fall off, at least close to the base. These cows are healthier than those without antlers. ", Humans started hunting reindeer in the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods and humans are today the main predator in many areas. According to the Igloolik Oral History Project (IOHP), "Caribou antlers provided the Inuit with a myriad of implements, from snow knives and shovels to drying racks and seal-hunting tools. You can find reindeer (or caribou) to the north in the arctic and subarctic regions of the planet. Females usually give birth to one calf, on rare occasions two. In his chapter in the book entitled Mammal Species of the World, English zoologist Peter Grubb agrees with Valerius Geist, specialist on large North American mammals, that this range actually includes several subspecies. Females usually give birth to one calf, on rare occasions two.  Barren-ground caribou are susceptible to the effects of climate change due to a mismatch in the phenological process, between the availability of food during the calving period. The supply began to get low during the Mesolithic, when reindeer retired to the north. Wood reindeer live in groups of no more than 20-30 throughout the year. They have the largest antlers relative to body size among living deer species. For example, amiraijaut in the Igloolik region is "when velvet falls off caribou antlers. Reindeer are the same species as caribou. The historic range of the reindeer is threatened by global warming.  Weight varies drastically between seasons, with males losing as much as 40% of their pre-rut weight.. ", "Population Structure and Hybridization of Alaskan Caribou and Reindeer: Integrating Genetics and Local Knowledge", "Biological adaptations in the Arctic cervid, the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)", "Morphological change in Newfoundland caribou: Effects of abundance and climate", "Igloolik elders win northern science award", Caribou at the Alaska Department of Fish & Game, "Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: Multiple messages and back-up signals", Reindeer use UV light to survive in the wild, "Shifting mirrors: adaptive changes in retinal reflections to winter darkness in Arctic reindeer", "Non-invasive assessment of the interrelationships of diet, pregnancy rate, group composition, and physiological and nutritional stress of barren-ground caribou in late winter", Caribou Migration Monitoring by Satellite Telemetry, "Monarch butterfly migration and parasite transmission in eastern North America", Arctic Reindeer Go Off the Circadian Clock, BBC Earth News-Reindeer herds in global decline, "Weather conditions and variation in timing of spring and fall migrations of migratory caribou", "Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter", "Phase-dependent climate–predator interactions explain three decades of variation in neonatal caribou survival", Starvation killed 80,000 reindeer after unusual Arctic rains cut off the animals’ food supply, ''The Sun, the Moon and Firmament in Chukchi Mythology and on the Relations of Celestial Bodies and Sacrifice'' by Ülo Siimets at 140, "How Does the Summer Solstice Affect Animals? Reindeer have been domesticated in Europe. There is strong regional variation in Rangifer herd size, By 2013 many caribou herds in North America had "unusually low numbers" and their winter ranges in particular were smaller than they used to be.  Dominant males, those with larger body size and antler racks, inseminate more than one doe a season. There are only two genetically pure populations of wild reindeer in Northern Europe: wild mountain reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) that live in central Norway, with a population in 2007 of between 6,000 and 8,400 animals; and wild Finnish forest reindeer (Rangifer tarandus fennicus) that live in central and eastern Finland and in Russian Karelia, with a population of about 4,350, plus 1,500 in Arkhangelsk and 2,500 in Komi. In the CCHE mechanism, in cold weather, blood vessels are closely knotted and intertwined with arteries to the skin and appendages that carry warm blood with veins returning to the body that carry cold blood causing the warm arterial blood to exchange heat with the cold venous blood. Thus the caribou came up on earth. Inuktitut is spoken in the eastern Arctic, and the caribou is known by the name tuktu. Siberian reindeer owners also use the reindeer to ride on (Siberian reindeer are larger than their Scandinavian relatives). The logo for Umeå University features three reindeer. A regular mail run in Wales, Alaska, used a sleigh drawn by reindeer. The Ihalmiut are caribou Inuit that followed the Qamanirjuaq barren-ground caribou herd. The growth of tourist activities and other events can also disturb the reindeer. More Fun Things To Do! …in the domestication of the reindeer, the second in the history of settlement and European contact. So today we know that the reindeer live around the secret village of Santa Claus Rangifer herd size varies greatly in different geographic regions. , According to a respected Igloolik elder, Noah Piugaattuk, who was one of the last outpost camp leaders, caribou (tuktu) antlers.  The sounds originate in the tendons of the knees and may be audible from ten metres (yards) away. They are also relatively short-legged and may have a shoulder height of as little as 80 cm (31 in), thereby following Allen's rule.  Antlers are typically larger on males. Add Link. The reindeer has large feet with crescent-shaped, cloven hooves for walking in snow or swamps. Numbers have declined by about 72% over the last three generations, mostly because of catastrophic die-off likely related to severe icing episodes. Now restricted to the North American Arctic…. Whilst cattle horns have living tissue in the core, the antlers of reindeer are made of dead … " Elders have identified at least 150 descriptive Gwich'in names for all of the bones, organs and tissues. in Norway. Antlers. , In 1986 Kurtén reported that the oldest reindeer fossil was an "antler of tundra reindeer type from the sands of Süssenborn" in the Pleistocene (Günz) period (680,000 to 620,000 BP). Longevity is about 15 years in the wild, 20 in captivity. , Because of its importance to many cultures, Rangifer tarandus and some of its subspecies have names in many languages. The grey wolf is the most effective natural predator of adult reindeer and sometimes takes large numbers, especially during the winter. These were first named in the 1823 poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas". Eurasian and American forest reindeer live in family groups of 6 to 13, with seasonal ranges of 500 square km (190 square miles) or less. 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Meet Farmers Dave & Dan s! 11/29/18 Supporter Video present on both males and females stories delivered right to with!