Diese 1888 in der britischen Armee eingeführte Waffe ersetzte das einschüssige Martini-Henry-Gewehr. It was a .577 bore, and used a lead minie ball and black powder. The Lee-Enfield had its origins in the late 19th century, when repeating rifles firing full-powered cartridges were coming to the fore. Shortly after the Sino-Indian War of 1962, India decided to upgrade their aging Enfield ...Click for more info. Many of these older flintlocks were converted for use with the new percussion system that became known as the Pattern 1839 Musket. Another French influence on this model was found in the bayonet. This thinking ultimately resulted in the 1853 Enfield Pattern, a rifle which, for the first time, was issued to every soldier in the British Army instead of the few trained marksmen. This allowed for the bayonet to be easily fitted and with a slight turn secured in a way that prevented it from detaching. British officers trained at the company's own Addiscombe Military Academy. The British War Department had approved the Pattern 53 just as the nation headed to war, but it wouldn't have its official baptism of fire until February 1855, more than five months after the first British troops began to arrive on the southwestern coast of the Crimean peninsula. Loading of the Enfield rifle required tearing off one end of the greased cartridge using one's teeth which was made of: (1) Cow fat (2) Sow fat (3) Both b. The age of the rifle had begun. A rumour spread among the sepoys that the grease used to lubricate the cartridges was a mixture of pigs’ and cows’ lard. 1896 Enfield LE1 303 New Zealand NZ Lee Metford . Discontent had been simmering among the sepoys for some time and, ironically, the anger at the cartridges was the trigger for the Revolt of 1857. The Snider was a type of breech loading rifle. This was a cumbersome and time-consuming process. sepoys had to bite the cartridge open to release the powder. It was the musket that was used during the American Revolution and in the conflicts against Napoleon Bonaparte. Any man who scored seven points with 20 rounds at that range was designated a marksman! GI#: 101549179. They refused to use the cartridges and were arrested for their apparent defiance. sepoys had to bite the cartridge open to release the powder. Area Code: 859 . Crossing several oceans and continents, from the sweltering heat of Central India in the summer of 1857 to the trenches of Petersburg in 1864, Brett Gibbons ties together the fascinating history of Enfield rifle-musket ammunition. The term “rifle-musket” was also used as it meant that rifle was the same length as the musket it replaced. "The P-53 Enfield rifle made use of a Metford-Pritchitt cartridge that necessitated the use of a heavy paper tube containing 2½ drams (68 grains) of musket powder and a 530-grain (34 g), pure lead bullet. Discussions related to firearms that do not fit in anywhere else. At the same time, the technical advances of the Industrial Age ushered in new methods of production and this led to the development of what would be one of the most important firearms in the history of the British Empire—the Enfield Pattern 1853 Rifle. Author Marina Wheeler captures the period of Partition of India in her book ‘The Lost Homestead’. Although it was the immediate cause that triggered the first war of independence, long term factors also played an important role, such as military, social, religious, economic and political causes. The firearm action was invented by the American Jacob Snider, and the Snider-Enfield was one of the most widely used of the Snider varieties. While British socket bayonets had relied upon a so-called “zig-zag” slot to fix them to the muzzle—which often blocked the foresight - the Pattern 53 adopted a French method that included a rotating locking ring on the socket of the bayonet. The news spread that the grease was made of cow and pig fat. The Queen’s Proclamation, Read out on 1st Nov 1858|Wikimedia Commons, Birth of India and Pakistan, Division of Punjab. Join our mailing list to receive the latest news and updates from our team. The Enfield rifle and cartridge | mangal pandey The Enfield rifle and cartridge The P-53 was officially known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle Musket. As the bullet incorporated no annular grease rings like the French and American minié ball bullets introduced in 1847, it was wrapped with a strip of greased paper to facilitate loading. Loading of the Enfield rifle required tearing off one end of the greased cartridge using one's teeth which was made of: (1) Cow fat (2) Sow fat (3) Both b. Discontent had been simmering among the sepoys for some time and, ironically, the anger at the cartridges was the trigger for the Revolt of 1857. Also, does anyone know of any good documentaries on the British in India? Ironically, even throughout the Napoleonic Wars, there was ample evidence that the musket was really not good enough, but British military planners were not quick to change even when the evidence suggested that there was room for improvement. Unlike existing percussion muskets, the Enfield's grooved bore required the cartridge to be greased to allow loading. Post Oct 07, 2014 #38 2014-10-07T11:48. While its use as the main service rifle was short-lived, lasting just thirteen years, it was a proven weapon that earned a reputation for reliability when it was used by both sides during the American Civil War. The rifle featured cartridges that contained 68 grains of black powder and had a ball that was typically 530-grain Pritchett or Burton-Minié. The standard method of loading was to bite the top off the cartridge and then pour the powder down the barrel. 1853 Pattern Rifled Musket; Enfield rifle. The Company had upgraded to the new Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle, which used greased paper cartridges. The new Pattern 1858 gun with a different bore (0.656) was introduced to quell any uneasiness among the Indian sepoys and assurances were given that the cartridges were not dipped in beef or pork fat. It was thus the weapon that helped build the Second British Empire (1783–1815) and usher in Britain's Imperial Century (1815–1914). And why were the cartridges greased in the first place? … in the mid-1850s, a new Enfield rifle was introduced into India that required a soldier to bite off the ends of greased cartridges in order to load the weapon. The Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle arrived just when it was needed, and it was clear that what worked at Waterloo would not suffice in the coming conflict. Discussions related to firearms that do not fit in anywhere else. Even Rani Lakshmibai fought one of her most valiant battles here, Nasiruddin Haider’s royal tailor, Makka Darzee, sponsored an imambara, a Qadam Rasool and a mosque in Khairabad, Luis de Menezes Braganza: Goa’s Crusader for Freedom, Luis de Menezes Braganza, the Goan aristocrat who wielded the power of the pen to inspire Goa’s march to freedom. After more than 125 years of use, the Brown Bess was superseded by percussion cap smoothbore muskets. And from the cool, damp British Isles was built the largest empire by landmass the world had ever known. During 1857, rumours began to circulate among the Bengal Army's sepoys that the cartridges were deliberately greased with pig and cow fat, offensive to … While the advantages of rifling were established and understood there was a long-held view in the British Army after the fall of Napoleon that “what was good enough at Waterloo is good enough now.” By the 1840s, that could no longer be accepted. $899.00 . The Company had upgraded to the new Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle, which used greased paper cartridges. Enfield Pattern 1853 Percussion Rifle Musket cartridges, 1857 (c) Cartridges for most muzzle-loading firearms of the period took the form of a paper tube containing a ball and powder. Antique British .577 Snider-Enfield rifles and accessories for Sale. The “Greased Cartridge Affair:” Re-Examining the Pattern 1853 Enfield Cartridge. It was called the Enfield rifle or the Enfield Pritchett rifle. After further refinements the Pattern 1853 Rifled Musket arrived. After the Revolt, the British Crown took over the Company with all its assets and all its armed forces, and by 1874, the Company was dead. Contemporary studies indicated that at the Battle of Salamanca some 8,000 enemy soldiers were wounded or killed—yet some three and a half a million cartridges had been fired. Der Namensbestandteil Enfield rührt daher, dass die Royal Small Arms Factory nach einem Brand ihre Fertigungsstätten vom Tower of London nach Enfield verlagerte. I am definitely very happy with it and it's definitely the nicest one I have. But it was fired by a percussion cap, which enabled it to be fired in all weather, even India’s monsoon rains. Just as many muskets were converted to rifles, the Pattern 53 was converted to a breech-loading firearm as the .577 Snider-Enfield, which utilized a new Boxer cartridge … And its end could be traced to a rifle that was technologically superior but that had misfired spectacularly. Das Magazin fasste acht Schuss. It was too late for the East India Company, which first set up trading operations and then ruled the subcontinent for over 250 years. Like its predecessor, the Baker rifle, the Enfield was loaded through the gun’s muzzle. Seller: CAALEX . This is the full rifle, for those interested. As the dust settled in the Crimea thousands of miles away another war was simmering and ironically the rifle that was part of technological advancement served as the catalyst in the Jewel of the Crown that was the British Empire. I have read both. Kalpi is the birthplace of Sage Vyasa & of Birbal. Crossing several oceans and continents, from the sweltering heat of Central India in the summer of 1857 to the trenches of Petersburg in 1864, Brett Gibbons ties together the fascinating history of Enfield rifle-musket ammunition. This is the story of the ‘1853 Enfield Musket’. Oh, Yes. This originated from a desire to produce a Rimfire Rifle that would not only provide shot after shot accuracy but would also be manufactured using the latest in technological innovation and production processes. The Lee-Enfield rifles were the mainstay of the British and their Commonwealth partners through both World Wars. For the next century, most refinements in firearms were limited to more expensive “sporting” or hunting rifles, and the common soldier was left with cruder firearms. Sir, we hear that the cartridge of the new rifle is greased ... comparing the issue of the rifle grease to the 1992 Los Angeles riots and the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy. The Lee-Enfield had its origins in the late 19th century, when repeating rifles firing full-powered cartridges were coming to the fore. Justify the statement. The rifleman then placed a percussion cap on the hammer and let fly by pulling the trigger. Even the long-used Brown Bess, which served British “Red Coats” around the globe for more than 100 years were smoothbore. Also, does anyone know of any good documentaries on the British in India? Cartridges from this Like the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand that sparked World War I, the issue of the greased cartridge from the new Enfield rifle was the immediate cause of this revolt. The Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle-musket(also known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield, P53 Enfield, and Enfield rifle-musket) was a.577 calibre Minié-typemuzzle-loading rifled musket, used by the British Empirefrom 1853 to 1867; after which many were replaced in service by the cartridge-loaded Snider–Enfieldrifle. As the British Empire became more global, the Brown Bess continued to see use around the world. The era of the smoothbore musket—which had been "good enough" at Waterloo—was truly a weapon whose time had passed. Plus, I can't let a good shooter go completely to waste. I submit that the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle-musket is the first infantry weapon of our current modern era, having more in common with the M í ò’s and M’s of today’s U.S. military than the smooth-bore muskets that came before it. Each day, Live History India brings you stories and films that not only chronicle India’s history and heritage for you, but also help create a digital archive of the 'Stories that make India' for future generations. I have read both. The immediate cause of the Sepoy Mutiny in India in 1857 was the belief that the Lee-Enfield rifle's cartridges were greased with cow and/or pig … 1853 Pattern Rifled Musket; Enfield rifle. To load the rifle, the rifleman or sepoy had to pull out a cartridge and bite off the bullet, which was at one end, and pour the pre-measured powder down the barrel, followed by the ball. The .303 British cartridge was designed specifically for that rifle, and later on, when the Lee-Metford was replaced with the Lee-Enfield, the Powers That Be kept the existing caliber. It was during this time that “Brown Bess”—less commonly known as the Land Pattern Musket—was introduced. The rest of the cartridge, including the ball, was then forced down with a ramrod. Before this, muskets were loaded with powder from a powder horn, after which a lead ball was removed from a separate pouch and rammed into the barrel with a ramrod, which was tucked under the barrel when not in use. 4 posts • … The firearm action was invented by the American Jacob Snider, and the Snider-Enfield was one of the most widely used of the Snider varieties. Greased Cartridges of Which Rifle Was One of The Immediate Causes of The 1857 Sepoy Uprising? They refused to use the cartridges and were arrested for their apparent defiance. The role of the Enfield "greased cartridge" in the outbreak of the Indian Rebellion of 1857-1858 is carefully handled. A rumour spread that the lubricant used was either cow or pig lard, which was repugnant to Hindus or Muslims, respectively.… The inadequacy of the smoothbore musket was further brought to attention in the trials carried out when the Pattern 1842 musket—one of the post-Brown Bess percussion cap muskets to be adopted—was tested by Captain McKerlie of the Royal Engineers in 1846. Were the cartridges for the Enfield rifle really greased in pig and cow fat, or was that just a rumor? Another target was used from 650 to 900 yards and it offered a three-foot bull's eye. This is because. Who introduced a system of 5-yearly inspections and temporary tax farmers? The barrel was fastened to the stock by three metal bands, which is why the rifle is still sometimes referred to as a “three band” model. WikiMatrix. (Other than the two recent BBC series covering the overall history of the British Empire, which I have already seen). This provided the opportunity for circulating rumours that the paper was sealed with animal grease, either beef tallow or pork lard. In 1567 these grooves were added—first to ease loading and to provide crevices for the gunpowder residue. The cartridges for this were widely believed to be greased with a mixture of cow and pig fat, and to bite them open when loading the rifle (as required by the drill books) would defile both Hindu and Muslim soldiers. The main difference between the two was in the rifling, which was a new type of rifling done exclusively at the factory in Enfield. The Pattern 53 Rifle has a velocity of about 850 to 900 per second. The sepoy mutiny was a widespread but unsuccessful rebellion against British rule in India in 1857–58. Who introduced a system of 5-yearly inspections and temporary tax farmers? Origin of the Mutiny The immediate cause of the Indian Revolt of 1857, or Sepoy Mutiny, was a seemingly minor change in the weapons used by the British East India Company's troops. For more than 150 years historians have maintained that India’s first revolt against British rule broke out at least in part over a gun—to be precise, the muzzle-loading Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle-musket. © Copyright 2020 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved. The rifle used a Metford-Pritchitt cartridge that required the use of a heavy paper tube containing 2½ drams (68 grains) of musket powder and a 530-grain (34 g), pure lead bullet. History teachers and textbooks have repeated, ad nauseam, that the cartridges had to be ‘bitten’ before the bullets could be used, and that they had been greased with pork and beef fat. Loading and Firing the Parker Hale P53 Enfield Rifle Musket with Enfield Paper Cartridge The “Greased Cartridge Affair:” Re-Examining the Pattern 1853 Enfield Cartridge and Its Role in the Indian Mutiny of 1857 While the Pattern 53 ushered in the era of the rifle it was to be short-lived as breech-loading technology was developed. GI#: 101549179. So, experiments with Enfield cartridges and Enfield Rifles is historically relevant not only to British troops building the Empire in the 19th Century, but also to Confederate Sharpshooter Battalions of the Army of Northern Virginia. The cartridges for this were widely believed to be greased with a mixture of cow and pig fat, and to bite them open when loading the rifle (as required by the drill books) would defile both Hindu and Muslim soldiers. Although it was the immediate cause that triggered the first war of independence, long term factors also played an important role, such as military, social, religious, economic and political causes. The introduction of the Enfield 1853 rifled musket tipped the soldiers into open rebellion. The Webley & Scott Xocet Bolt Action Rimfire Rifle was designed and developed in conjunction between Webley & Scott and a leading German firearms manufacturer. This particular musket and its derivatives fired a .75 caliber ball and remained the British Empire's standard long gun from 1722 until 1838. This most certainly played into the British use of squares that had proven so successful against cavalry attacks at battles such as Waterloo. The grizzly aftermath of the Revolt resulted in the British monarch directly taking charge of India, and the Queen’s Proclamation of 1858 was read out all over the country on the 1st of November. It is first worth noting that the company began based on trade, but into the early nineteenth century the unique geopolitical situation actually required that three independent armies of the company's Presidencies were formed. The 1854 Infantry Manual specified that to load, the soldier should bite the end off … BRITISH 1853 PATTERN ENFIELD RIFLE CARTRIDGES Introduction This article traces the construction and evolution of the cartridges used for the British 1853 pattern Enfield muzzle-loading rifle musket, with reference to the types used in New Zealand. Area Code: 859 . But the British had forgotten to take into account the religious beliefs of their Indian sepoys. The First British Empire (1583–1783) saw great technical innovation in naval development and small arms. This, in turn, was followed by the greased paper and then rammed in. Here’s a clue to what we’re talking about: a rifle that was first issued by the armed forces in Britain in 1855 and in India in 1857. Cartridges from this In 1853 Sepoys throughout India were issued with a new rifle, the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifled musket. Origin of the Mutiny The immediate cause of the Indian Revolt of 1857, or Sepoy Mutiny, was a seemingly minor change in the weapons used by the British East India Company's troops. This is the story of a rifle that changed the destiny of an entire subcontinent, the story of a weapon that triggered one of the greatest revolts of the 19th century, and a weapon that led to the winding up of the world’s first great multinational company. Shortly after the Sino-Indian War of 1962, India decided to upgrade their aging Enfield ...Click for more info. Die Enfield Rifled Musket ist der erste gezogene Vorderlader einer europäischen Armee, der für alle Truppenteile vom britischen Board of Ordnance (BO) 1852 angenommen wurde.. Der Namensbestandteil „Enfield“ rührt daher, dass die Royal Small Arms Factory nach einem Brand ihre Fertigungsstätten vom Tower of London nach Enfield verlagerte. The rebellion was due to the introduction of the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle. Its use during the Crimean War and later the Indian Mutiny would vindicate this policy when it became clear that the infantry were now capable of outgunning artillery. - 26695726 The truth is that there were many other factors well beyond the cartridges, but it is true that this did play a significant role in starting the rebellion that nearly destroyed the British Empire. 17th-19th century only, not 20th. Most famously, the introduction of the Enfield rifle to Indian troops (sepoys) in 1857, issued with cartridges lubricated with mutton tallow, provided one of the catalysts to the Great Mutiny of 1857. 1896 Enfield LE1 303 New Zealand NZ Lee Metford . It featured a 39-inch barrel that had three groves with a 1:78 rifling twist. The sepoy mutiny was a widespread but unsuccessful rebellion against British rule in India in 1857–58. $899.00 . This had hurt both Hindus' and Muslims' religious sentiments which was one of the causes of the sepoy mutiny of 1857. Answer: Enfield Rifle. This is because. Showing and discussing the loading of the 1855 Enfield cartridge and Pritchett Bullet. The Sepoys in the East India Company were first issued with the Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle-musket in 1857. This had hurt both Hindus' and Muslims' religious sentiments which was one of the causes of the sepoy mutiny of 1857. The use of iron bands to retain the barrel had been common with French weapons since the middle years of the eighteenth century and is why this model is often noted for having French influences. Das erste in Großbritannien hergestellte Lee-Gewehr war das Lee Metford Rifle Mark I mit einem von William Ellis Metford entwickelten Lauf mit sieben Zügen. Enfield Cartridges and tallow grease A consignment of [the Enfield cartridges] was sent out to India in 1853 to test its keeping qualities (not for firing purposes): the grease made at Enfield was composed of tallow from beef and pork fat. The grease used on these cartridges was rumoured to be made of beef and pork which angered the Hindu and the Muslims in the army ... Mangal Pandey was the first sepoy of 5th Company of the 34th Native Infantry Regiment. The greased cartridges in the newly introduced Enfield rifles was the immediate Cause of the Revolt of 1857’. But this was taboo for Muslims who abhor pigs, and Hindus who worship the cow. Seller: CAALEX . 1892 kam eine Variante des Lee-Metford, das verbesserte Mark I… Here's What You Need To Remember: The Enfield rifle represented a major - if brief - technological step up, and served as one of the first modern exported rifles across the world. Served British “ Red Coats ” around the world introduced Enfield rifles was the same length as Pattern... Period of Partition of India in 1857–58 propellant wrapped in waterproofed cartridge paper a minie... 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And three distinctive bands the hammer and let fly by pulling the trigger musket ’ the! 4 posts • … the sepoy mutiny of 1857 world Wars pre-measured amount powder. Covered with a new rifle, which I have already seen ) partners both... Before the cartridge open to release the powder new Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle the.